Marina Lagutina on Vesti.FM: influx of Ukrainian migrants to Russia has decreased
Sociologists single out pull and push factors for migration, the analyst of Vestnik Kavkaza, Marina Lagutina said in the National Question program on Vesti FM.
National Question is a weekly program on Vesti.FM, during which various aspects of national relations, primarily in Russia, are discussed. Today's program was dedicated to the draft law on migrants from Ukraine and Belarus, which was submitted to the State Duma for consideration.
The expert noted that among push factors that force people to leave their homeland are hunger, drought, floods, a high crime rate, low standard of living and security, poverty and war. "The group of pull factors includes a higher standard of living, good climate, low unemployment and crime rates, absence of natural disasters, political stability in the country where a person is heading,” the expert said.
She cited the conflict in eastern Ukraine that began in 2014 as a push factor for Ukrainians coming to Russia, and higher income level and job opportunities in Russia as an example of the pull factors for citizens of Ukraine and Belarus.
“Does language play any role in choosing a country of migration? Linguists Alicia Adsera at Princeton University and Mariola Pytlikova at the Czech University of Ostrava have been studying this issue for many years. In their work, they come to the conclusion that the language factor affects the choice of a country of migration less than the income level and standard of living but more than the difference in unemployment between the country of departure and the destination country, " Marina Lagutina underlined.
The expert said that in general, people are almost 20% more likely to move to countries with a related culture and language than to states the language of which they do not know at all. "Researchers also note that in countries where the requirements for language skills are stricter in order to obtain citizenship or a residence permit, the level of migration is lower. Therefore, to attract migrants, scientists advise governments to mitigate language requirements. And the introduction of the draft law to the State Duma, one may say, follows this advice," the expert drew attention.
According to the study of RANEPA and the Higher School of Economics researchers, last year the influx of migrants to Russia staying in the country for a long time turned out to be the lowest for the entire post-Soviet period. Meanwhile, the influx of Ukrainians decreased most of all. “After the 2014 events, there was a sharp increase in the number of migrants from this country, but five years later, this trend is dying out. At the same time, Ukraine, as well as Belarus, is stepping up efforts to attract migrants to reduce the demographic deficit. Therefore, various methods are good for stimulating potential migrants," the expert added.
“But, of course, whether this measure will be effective or citizens of Ukraine and Belarus will receive Russian citizenship and stay at their home countries is unknown, only time and further statistics will show how things go,” the analyst concluded.